Hypertrophy Training: Rules to Live by When Muscle Hypertrophy is Your Goal

By JC Deen



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Hypertrophy training – in an untamed pursuit to build a better body, we’re rarely concerned about the long-term or how we plan to get from point A to point B; we simply want to experience a transformation.  We want maximal muscle growth in minimal time and we’ll do anything to appear how we believe we’re supposed to when gazing upon the reflection staring back at us.

The pursuit may seem vain to many, but to those who can relate – it goes much deeper.  The maximal muscle hypertrophy we desire is often a result of our competitive drive to reach new heights or the unconscious self-doubt (gasp) we impose upon ourselves.

Sure, for some it’s pure vanity and that’s fine too; there’s nothing wrong with a little textbook narcissism now and again.  However, to understand something fully, we sometimes must start at the end result and work backward.  Therefore, to better understand hypertrophy training, in this case, from an anecdotal standpoint, we’re going to look at a few trainees who’ve made major strides despite slightly different training philosophies and approaches.

Thou Shall Get Strong

Despite what anyone tells you, for the most part, strength is going to equal size.  As we gaze upon the masters of bodybuilding, powerlifting, Olympic weightlifting and the popular sports such as American football that require an athlete to be very strong, it’s easy to see that maximal strength usually means an increase in muscle hypertrophy.

Don’t believe me?  Have a look at Martin Berkhan, Tommy Jeffers, Layne Norton, Dave Gulledge, or any other athlete with great strength.  All these guys are incredibly strong and thus possess remarkable physiques.  One should also note how their training differs.  While it’s obvious when looking at their programming that Tommy and Layne are focused on hypertrophy training, Dave Gulledge’s focus is primarily strength-oriented and Martin’s training preference seems to be fairly low volume (rarely looked upon as hypertrophy training).

A Look At Some Hypertrophy Training Programs

I’ve covered a few of these already but I feel it’s necessary to discuss them in this context to do this article justice.

Low Volume Hypertrophy Training – DC Training is a good example here. The concept of DC is simple; low volume, heavy weights and continuous improvement. The training template focuses on 3 training sessions per week.  Exercise selection is varied from session to session but the layout is fairly minimal.  This program is primarily focused on producing muscle hypertrophy via strength gains on any given movement.

Another example is the HIT training made popular with the help of Ellington Darden.  Mike Mentzer also contributed to its popularity but it’s hard to say whether or not he truly followed the HIT routines or if he was just involved in promoting them.  Many say he built his frame using a more conventional approach and merely maintained his physique with the HIT methods.

With this type of hypertrophy training, one might do a max set of squats once per week or every 10 days. The same applies to other movements as well.  HIT training, in my opinion, is not suitable for many as it’s often difficult for most individuals to stay out of the gym.  Plus, most aren’t going to see the results they’re after like they might if they followed a routine with more volume and a higher frequency.

Moderate Volume Hypertrophy Training – LyleMcDonald’sBulkingRoutine is a good example of this.  With these programs, you’ve normally got 2-3 movements per body part for a frequency of a few times per week.  This type of hypertrophy training spans over 3-4 days depending on your personal preferences and recovery ability.

Another example is splitting up your training into limb and core days.  On the limb days, you train legs and arms and on core days, you train chest, shoulders and back.  I’ve done this type of training for a long time.  You can opt for a 3 day version (set up like the DC template) or the 4 day version in a similar fashion as Lyle’s routine.

For each muscle group respectively, you pick two movements and perform 2-4 sets of 3-12 (rep range dependent on how you periodize it.)

With this type of training, your arms are getting hit directly and indirectly 4 times per week.  This is not a problem as long as you keep the training volume moderate and manage intensity.

This type of program puts an emphasis on steady progression per each movement with some added volume when compared to DC or other low volume training methods.

Low Frequency/High Volume Hypertrophy Training – Just about any of the popular 5-7 day splits you discovered in your favorite muscle magazine will fall under this category.  While this training has its place for a select few individuals, I’d never recommend it to the average trainee.  I’ve seen and read about too many people doing such routines with little to no results to speak of.

Many of the mass monsters can get away with training like this for two reasons: one is the fact they are very advanced and require a stimulus that only heavy weights plus a ton of volume can provide and the other reason is that many of them are pharmaceutically assisted.  When drugs enter the game, the rules become skewed.

Moderate to High(er) Frequency/Moderate Volume Hypertrophy Training – These are training programs that have you in the gym 3-6 times per week with varied intensities and volume.

HST is a great example of this training in effect.  On HST, one is training full-body every other day.  The idea behind it is to take advantage of recovery and peaks in protein synthesis.  The frequency in this regard is fairly aggressive with each body part getting hit 3 times per week.  However, it’s completely doable due to the loading protocol and built-in periodization Bryan Haycock recommends to succeed on the program.

One more way of approaching a higher frequency program is to train 6 times per week in an upper/lower split (or for more volume – push/pull/legs).  While many won’t be able make such a commitment, if set up correctly, this type of training can be very productive.

Productive, in this sense, assumes that the individual knows and understands how to moderate their intensity and volume in a sensible and practical matter.

Here’s an interesting thread about high frequency training on Glenn Pendlay’s forum.

Rest-Pause Hypertrophy Training – While DC training is a form of rest-pause training, it’s not the only way of getting the hypertrophy training effect.  With DC training, one goes to failure on each respective set.  With other rest-pause style training, one doesn’t have to go to failure if the desire is nonexistent.

I’ve had a few email conversations with Børge Fagerli of MyoRevolution.no as well as read many of his forum posts about rest-pause training.  His method of training has become known, to a select few fitness obsessed, as MyoReps.  Click that link for a rough, Google translation of this training method.

He also discusses auto-regulation (which I’m having a lot of success experimenting with) in this article.  Eventually, I plan to write about my personal, anecdotal discoveries pertaining to auto-regulation training.

Another addition to this rest-pause method for muscle hypertrophy can be found at WannaBeBig.com.  The name they gave their program is HCT-12.  Start here if you wish to read all articles on WBB about their rest-pause method.

For rest-pause training with a little bit of auto-regulation thrown into the mix, one can experience shorter, more efficient training bouts.  My time is precious; therefore when I have the chance to cut down on training time, I do it.

A Look At Some Strength Training Programs

Full-Body and Moderate Frequency – Many strength training routines are on the 3 times per week schedule.  The most popular strength training program is probably Starting Strength.  In my opinion, it’s one of the best and simplest routines for the beginner who wishes to get started with strength training or bodybuilding.  Then of course, the methods discussed in the book, Practical Programming, are just as pertinent.

Another training routine that follows closely is known as the Texas Method which incorporates a similar training style in terms of frequency but slightly different in terms of intensity depending on the day.

Another program I’m moderately infatuated with is known as the MadCow 5×5.  Another training protocol that is newer in terms of its name but follows many of the same principles is the Stronglifts 5×5.

Sheiko programs are cool, too.

Moderate Frequency Split Training – These are your upper/lower four day strength programs that usually incorporate heavy and light days.  The most famous of these is probably the Westside template and its many variations.

With these types of programs one is training each body part twice weekly in a periodized fashion.  A few light days and a few heavy days can ensure your progression for a long, long time.

Another popular template is known as the 5-3-1 by Jim Wendler.  Now this particular template focuses on 4 movements: the squat, bench, deadlift and shoulder press.  While you’re only training the movements specifically once every 10 days or so, there’s a ton of overlap.

Now, while I could go on forever about different training methods and ideas, it’s time to move onto the heart of the matter.

What produces muscle hypertrophy?  Is there such a thing as hypertrophy training specifically, or is it always going to be some hopeless mystery in which we’ll never, ever crack?

Hypertrophy Training or Strength Training?

Likely, this discussion will always be debatable.  Everyone has their own experience to draw from; their own reasons or methodologies about why something works.  If you walk into any gym, you’ll find big guys doing 6-day body part splits, a few guys doing upper/lower splits and then a few doing full-body training.  You also find just as many guys doing the same thing, and have been for years, who look like they’ve never picked up a fork, let alone ever stepped foot inside a gym.

While everyone has their own ideas and beliefs, I feel it’s important we remain objective when discussing what works (also, what doesn’t) and why.

First, I want to take a look at someone who’s attained an incredible physique through low-volume, very intense training protocols – hardly what you’d expect for someone who had high hopes of muscle hypertrophy.  If you don’t know of Martin Berkhan, allow me to introduce you.

Here’s a post of the condition he maintains year around – it’s easy to see this guy has put his time in and gotten a few things right along the way.  His training resembles more of a strength-oriented focus – it’s evidently worked when you see his 270kg deadlift.

On the other side of the coin, let’s take a look at a few guys who are naturals, like Martin, that train in a different manner altogether.

Layne Norton and Tommy Jeffers are both advanced bodybuilders who do their fair share of strength work but also a decent amount of volume, too.  Take a look at Layne’s five day split.  Let’s just say that if you aren’t in good shape and ready for some hard work, this program would eat you alive.

Then you have guys like Dave Gulledge who are primarily known as powerlifters and only train as a means to get stronger.  Most don’t care too much about hypertrophy – they only care about becoming stronger than their peers in order to bring home the trophy on competition day.

And then of course, we have the wondrous guy or gal who can grow on any routine you place them on.  These folks can usually be found doing the 6-day splits they found in a magazine and growing like a weed.  This is rare though, so don’t count on this type of training being optimal for many.

Recipe For Success?
It’s no doubt there’s something at play here – something we need to examine and if we don’t make a decision just yet – at least think about it.   For one, I think it’s fairly obvious that strength, to an extent, is going to equal mass.

Now, this isn’t an absolute because we have to keep neural adaptation in mind.  Ever heard of the newbie lifter putting 30-40lbs on his bench in a matter of a month or so?  It’s simple – they started doing something they were unfamiliar with, practiced it (repetition), and then got in the groove.  This is why a higher frequency is often recommended to beginners – it just makes sense to get in as much “practice’ as possible when stating out.  This ensures proper form (if it’s being taught) sticks into their brain, thus making the exercise easier and safer which enables them to progress fairly rapidly.

Now, let’s make a pie.

  • First Ingredient: strength – If one wishes to pack on the size, strength gains must be your focus.  It’s only through adaptation and a continuous stimulus these gains will be realized.  Ever read any of Dante Trudel’s thoughts on Intense Muscle?  He’s constantly preaching the gospel that states whoever makes the most strength gains will likely make the most gains in lean body mass.  It’s no question that the strongest dudes are almost always the biggest.  Look at Ronnie Coleman deadlifting 800lbs.  Picture Tom Platz squatting a small house.
  • Second Ingredient: Food – I hate to say it, but this one probably scares people a bit; especially the FFB’s.  This is the main determinant as to whether or not you make the gains you desire.  Every guy who’s both big and strong has done his fair share of eating.  It’s probably the most important part of the equation.  Sure, training is up there as well but without food, it’s all in vain.  Make sure, that along with the training method you decide on, you support your goals with an adequate intake of high quality calories plus some cereal and cheesecake now and then.
  • Third Ingredient: TIME – We’re not talking about the magazine, either.  Time, oh how short it is, is truly the only thing between you and your physique goals.  Now I write that assuming you are in good health, capable of tackling the first two ingredients and have the desire to make it happen.  Think about this for one second.  It’s safe to say that a trainee, over his/her lifetime, could conceivably add a total of 30-50lbs of lean body mass to their frame.  Think about if you had only average genetics and you added a total of 40lbs over 5 years?  Your first year would be  the best in terms of overall gains in body weight and as time goes on, things will slow down fairly drastically.  However, just think about the guy who weighs 150lbs starting out and ends up 190lb man carved out of wood?  How’s that for a visual impact?  Is the time and effort worth it?  I believe it is, actually.

Goals – Get Some

I think it’s safe to say the big picture is what matters here.  Sure, certain training programs are better suited for some than others.  If you’re goal is to gain the most strength possible, picking a strength-oriented routine is going to be more ideal than picking a program built around the concept of creating hypertrophy first.  Sure you’ll get strong on either one but which one will get you to your goal faster?

The most important part of this equation is that you figure out what you want, develop your plan to get you there and then just go and do it because guess what; neither I, nor anyone else can do it for you.

You must choose to accept there are no shortcuts.  You must accept that hypertrophy training is strength training (and vice versa) as long as it’s within the scope of lifting heavier weights over time whilst allowing yourself to recover as a result of proper nutrition and lots of shuteye.

Now take everything you’ve learned, sit down in a corner by yourself.  Take out a sheet of paper and write out your goals exactly as you see them.  Then, simply work backward until you arrive at where you are currently.

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65 thoughts on “Hypertrophy Training: Rules to Live by When Muscle Hypertrophy is Your Goal”

  1. JC,

    What are your thoughts on alternating volume and intensity? I’ve read a lot recently about how volume lends itself to faster hypertrophy but slower strength gains, and intensity lends itself to faster strength gains but slower hypertrophy. For instance a cycle of Lyle’s Bulking Routine (8’s and 12’s variant) alternated with linear programming (SS, or perhaps with 5×3 to further emphasize strength). For now I’m still making gains on SS + food + shuteye, but I can’t seem to decide what to do when SS stops working.

    Sorry to bring up an old post, and thank you for your time.

    • I like to alternate different phases of my training for strength and hypertrophy. How about when SS stops working, you give one of these routines a shot?

  2. Read a couple articles posted on your site so far. I’d just like to say, Thank you so much. Ive read so much bullshit and pseudoscience on the internet, it’s nice to see some simple information without trying to back it up with a shoddy study or things along those lines. I’ve been teaching myself, along with help from my exercise physiologist teacher, bits and pieces about nutrition and human phys, and in the constant pursuit of no nonsense knowledge, do you have any books or even textbooks that lay out basics of hypertrophy/strength training? I’ve been searching for a text that is written, for lack of a better term, simply and concisely. Most ive read are written incoherently and too generally.

  3. Great and thorough article! When I take stock of all the methods I have used, including the ones you mentioned, the thing I keep coming back down to earth with is the”Push-Pull-Legs” split – provided I use heavy compounds and a 5×5 protocol. (push:bench, military, weighted dips etc; pull: deads, rows, weighted chins; legs: leg press, squats, RDL -and append assistance/rehab stuff as needed)

    The good thing I found about the Push-Pull-Legs approach is that, used as a template, you can train on it indefinitely by changing the parameters. Turn 5×5 with 80% 1RM into GVT by using 10×10 with 60% 1RM. When my elbows flare up, I do a push cycle using only the Hammer Strength machines for a spell to give them a break. PPL offers great flexibility and returns for me, while not getting into the insane level of volume of the typical popular 5-7 day splits we see in Weider’s magazines.

    I find that as an intermediate lifter I get the volume and specialization I need, plus the recovery when doing the routine one on, one off (working on a 6 day rotation). Stressing all the tendons in one area is key to my recovery and ongoing gains; doing all the pushing on one day gives the tricep tendons 6 days to recover, same with the elbows, shoulders, knees, etc. Also, each day, I have only three heavy movements to focus on, which is great for the mental aspects.

    I did get really great results off of “Lyle’s Bulking Routine” too and switch to this for a change once in a while for more frequency so to get the best of both worlds -volume and frequency.

    What I found about “HST training” is that it is (ironically) too much and too little at the same time; Too much in terms of overworking the tendons in a given area (pressing M-W-F and pulling movements M-W-F for eg.) and too little in terms of volume to really challenge the area to grow. Great for maintenance/fat loss though.

    DC = brilliant, but too hard on the nervous system, IMO, just like the Jones-Mentzer HIT stuff.

    • thanks for the thoughtful response, bro!

      I really like hammer machines as well and find they are very easy on my shoulders. Nowadays, the only pressing movements I can safely do without agony are (surprisingly) dips, DB presses and hammer machines.

  4. yeah I read about autoregulation as I want to apply it to every workout uhm I probably stress too much, I wanted to do lyle’s workout and now i’m interested in HCT I guess I just want to experiment something new that works and don’t want to waste my time…

  5. @Flo: Well, currently I am doing a modified 5×5 type split. strength-focused and a fair amount of eating. that’s besides the point. If you want to focus on hypertrophy, you must get stronger (hence strength training).

    However, I think autoregulation is a very nice way to go. Of course HST is a great program but if you don’t wan to do it, you’ve many other options. Why not give autoregulation type training a try? HCT-12 is a very comprehensive source for this method.

  6. hello JC, first off , very nice and comprehensive article !
    well I am very confused right now about starting a new program; short history: I did lyle’s routine for like 4-5 months with good results, after that I did UD2 7 weeks with good results and now I was interested in Hypertrophy specific training but as I was informing about it on some forums , on lyle’s forum I saw that alot of people recomended another routine ( like” don’t spend your time on HST there are better routines” ) from an experienced user as I see, of course many things have changed from the appearence of HST but I wonder If it’s an effective program because I don’t want to waste my time stalling or not growing to my max and do you have some sugestions ( I’m looking for hypertrophy mainly , not interested in strengh training ( I mean not interested in low rep str training ). Also what program do you like now and use it? ( i’m also interested in autoregulation but as I read in HST I can’t apply this principle because I plan my workout weights in advance in every cycle..maybe in the last day of 1 rep cycle I could use it…) so?

    • It’s pointless listing them all, and imho myoreps are a superior rest-pause style of training in comparison to max stim.

      And in fact in the lower rep ranges myoreps essentially becomes max stim.. not that many do it that way. There’s less point in the heavier range to use restpause and may as well just use regular sets

  7. This is a great article. I have been an advocate of HIT for a long time. I decided to try it following a few nasty injuries. Dorian Yates was supposedly a firm believer in it too, although I do think he used it for maintenance.

  8. Nice comprehensive overview JC. As a bit of a hardgainer, (which I’m learning may mean; aka “tryharder!”), I’ve gotten some good gains with Starting Strength and Lyle’s Generic Bulking routine. Pushing strength usually equals increased math inevitably. I’d certainly recommend those two to anyone starting out, or recalibrating their routine after setting goals like you said. Wish I’d discovered them when I was 18 or so darn it!

    • Glad you liked it McB. I’ve found it quite common for guys to let go of volume or intensity and return to a more subtle approach like you mentioned and start making gains again.

  9. Great detailed article JC!

    I have learnt that focussed goals is key when it comes to gaining mass, lean muuscle or strength…the quickest route to achieving one of those is to concentrate solely on it though I think you can take a broad approach e.g. gain muscle/lose fat more or less simultaneously – the goal will just take longer to achieve.

    I like to use Specialization to get past plateaus sometimes – we get told so much not to overtrain but actually for some, doing the same exercise (e.g. chin ups) day in day out for a short period of time can work!!

    • yea, short bouts of block training can be helpful in spurring growth and helpful in breaking through plateaus.

      In terms of high frequency, there’s been a lot of discussion lately through a few forums about training each day. Some seem tobe experiencing some very impressive strength gains, actually.

  10. been a long time JC. I’ve got my nutrition down though. I was wondering if you had any program in mind that are low frequency/low volume yet are done with fast cadences? Size is the main goal, strength doesn’t really matter to me, but power and speed are definitely secondary goals to me. I do have to admit I don’t want to powerlifting movements like clean and press, clean and jerk, as they silly in the gym with light weights. I can probably do 95 for both those exercises, which is horrible. I’ll wait till I’m of good size and can put adequate on the bar for the exercise before I do it. Both DC and HIT both use slow concentrics, which I’ve heard can really lower your speed and power. I may want to look like a bodybuilder, but I definitely do not want to move like one(slow and cumbersome)

    • I don’t mean to sound rude or harsh but this is why guys get no results – overthinking everything and worrying about small things… Lift heavy stuff; rest, eat and repeat. What makes you think that bodybuilders are slow and cumbersome?

      • If that’s the case, what sets and reps do you recommend? and please don’t say stronglifts. I’ve tried that, it didn’t work for me along with the fact mehdi is much smaller than you. I’ve discovered it firsthand. IBB actually got me results, without the supplements, but I stopped it, because there is no way I can do all those complicated exercises and I choose not to. However, I must admit I had quite a bit of explosive power, which was definitely a plus. I switched back to HIT for a while when I watched a video of Mike Mentzer and that day it hit me hard because all I browsed through ended up being HIT without me even typing in the term. But damn it got me slow. I can’t move as fast as I used to. That’s when I stopped HIT.

        • if you want some heavy + speed work throw in, why don’t you try the Westside template? You have 2 light days and 2 heavy days.

  11. JC, do you think that a upper/lower body is better suited for a guy on a cut than e.g. a 3 day bodysplit?

    • not really. I think it’s a matter of how strong one is, how steep the deficit is, etc. It’s also going to be a matter of managing the loads. So, I guess my answer is “it depends.”

      • I’m loosing about a pound per week, and strength is increasing… but I think it’s slowing down, although I switch exercises to keep the body guessing, So I was wondering if a complete new kind of training program would help?

            • You can continue doing the same movements but altering loads and intensities to break out of plateaus but there’s no real need to alternate exercises if you don’t wish to.

              There are occasions such as there being no DB’s that go above 120lbs, or a machine that you become too strong for, etc.

  12. JC:

    Perfect timing with this article. I am orienting Alex, my 14 (soon to be 15) year old son, to the weight room. We have been doing very light weight, with lots of reps, so he can learn basic lifts (bench, squats, and dead lifts).

    Now, we are talking about setting goals for the summer and will want primarily a strength building program (and I don’t think your off your rocker believing that strength training and hypertrophy go hand in hand). I was thinking Mad Cow 5×5, but now will look at the Starting Strength program.

    Seems like winter swim season just ended and the summer season starts next week…you can imagine how much he eats already. I don’t have to encourage him to eat, but it’s good to reinforce the point that he needs to keep it up.

    As always, thanks for the thorough article. It is great to be exposed to a full range of information! And, it is nice to get reinforcement on best practices.

    • Good luck to him and his athletic endeavors. I want to commend you for taking him by the hand and making sure he is taught correctly. He will be so thankful later in life for your guidance!

  13. Incredible article, JC. I currently am training with the upper/lower light/heavy variations. I’m really interested in the WestSide training though. What is your experience with it, if you have tried it?

    Eating….again, the most important part of the equation, at least in my opinion. Just fantastic article man.

    • Thanks Joshua.

      I haven’t done the template exactly as-is but I have experimented with light and heavy days. In my opinion, it’s one of the best ways to go for guys like myself who are prone to going heavy all the time.

      I’ve burnt myself out A LOT because it’s hard to hold back.

      • That sounds exactly like me. I pretty much focus on one main lift each workout where I go heavy as hell, then throw some assistance movements in. That sounds a lot like 5/3/1, and some others, but it’s more of a light/heavy upper/lower split that I have catered to my liking. Again, great article.

    • I will add that I made some of my best gains on WS4SB, the first template (or 1.5?) done at ABA style. Which is heavy upper, heavy lower, and light upper. If I were to do it again I would make sure that I did not go to failure on every set, something I did quite consistently, and not switch exercises as often.

  14. Lots of links! Great for more reading material, thanks. I’ve been lifting consistenly since 2006 and I haven’t had the best of luck gaining LBM but I think that mostly it’s due to a variety of factors, inconsitent training routines (the whole muscle confusion thing), not having a definite goal, and having unrealistic LBM goals.I have a pretty small frame so I’m not packing on slabs of muscle, at least naturally (and quite honestly I wouldn’t try to lift anyway BUT naturally). I’ve tigtened up a bit on things this past year with the guidance of Alan, you, and currently Martin. Things are looking up.

    • Yes, plenty of links to keep a person busy reading for a while. I think the main thing is to just keep your goals in front of you, work really hard and let genetics do their thing.

      I’m glad we could all be of help to you, Eric.

  15. Great article JC, I’m currently training with mass gains as a primary goal. You were the one that recommended Starting Strength, actually. Great timing as always!

    I’ve always assumed that people with strength as an overall goal are trainees who may not be as concerned about body fat (powerlifters come to mind), while trainees with hypertrophy goals focus on lean mass gains while minimizing body fat as much as they can.

    As a FBB myself, how many calories over maintainence would you say is ideal for a trainee who wants more muscle mas overall? I’ve seen ranges from 400-500 (Fitness Black Book, I think) calories to over 2,000 (StrongLifts)!

    • well, in the general sense, most powerlifters aren’t too concerned with being extra chubby. If they’re competing, it’s a different story as most of them need to make weight for a competition.

      as far as the perfect surplus, it’s hard to say. The more advanced one is means that less of a surplus will be needed because most of a large surplus is likely to result in unwanted fat gain.

      Having a 2000 kcal surplus is something I’d never recommend. That’s a good way to get fat – the only time, in my opinion, that’s even necessary is if you have a severely underweight teen who’s starting to train. They need all the kcals they can get.

      Most of the time, I’m recommending anywhere from a 400-600 kcal surplus around training. Rest day kcals are set according to goals and other variables.

      It’s mainly a matter of what you’re wanting to do, how fast you want to go and fat you may or may not want to get.

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JC Deen is a nationally published fitness coach and writer from Nashville, TN. Currently living in the blistering Northeast. Follow me on X/Twitter